《26》Medieval Hakata: Mystery of Sode-no-Minato (Part 4)

《26》Medieval Hakata: Mystery of Sode-no-Minato (Part 4)

《26》Medieval Hakata: Mystery of Sode-no-Minato (Part 4)...Sode-no-Minato, located at the western bay inlet of Hakata


- In 1952, during the construction of a building facing the intersection of "Gofukumachi, Hakata Ward," the presumed site of Sode-no-Minato, many Chinese ceramics were unearthed along with the remains of pile rows. This seemed to strengthen Dr. Nakayama's theory that this must be the site of the Sode-no-Minato pier.


- Later, however, during excavations for subway construction and other purposes, ditches, tombs, and wells were found at the site. In addition, white porcelain dating from the late 11th to early 12th century was unearthed, indicating that the area had already been converted to land by the end of the Heian period. It turns out that there was no Sode-no-Minato near the Gofukumachi intersection. So where exactly was the Sode-no-Minato?


-One of the grounds for the theory by Kaibara Ekiken that "there used to be an inlet running east to west through the city of Hakata. The basis for this theory is the "Old Map of Hakata," an ema (votive picture tablet) housed at Sumiyoshi Shrine (Sumiyoshi, Hakata Ward). The drawing depicts the coves cutting deeply into the east side of Hakata Bay.


- However, an earlier drawing shows a deeply cut channel on the west side of Hakata, where the words "Sode-no-Minato" are written. According to two land reclamations recorded in local histories such as "Sekijoshi" in the Edo period and recent archaeological studies, the location of Sode-no-Minato in the Middle Ages is thought to have been at the western bay inlet of Hakata. 


*This photo shows Chinese ceramics from the Song Dynasty unearthed during subway construction.  /




- 1952 年には袖の湊の推定地であった「博多区呉服町」の交差点に面するビルの建設工事中に杭列遺構とともに多くの中国陶磁器が出土しました。ここが袖の湊の桟橋跡に違いないと、ますます中山博士の説が強化されたかに思われました。


- しかし、その後地下鉄工事などの発掘調査で、現地から溝や墓、井戸などが見つかりました。また11世紀後半から12世紀初頭の白磁が出土したことで、この一帯は平安時代末期にはすでに陸化していたことが判明しました。呉服町交差点付近に袖の湊はなかったことがわかったのです。それではいったい袖の湊はどこにあったのでしょう。


- 貝原益軒が「昔、博多の町を東西に貫通する入海があった。」とする説の根拠となるものが、住吉神社(博多区住吉)に収められている絵馬「博多古図」です。そこには博多湾の東側に深く切れ込んだ入江が描かれています。


- しかし、それ以前の絵図には博多の西側に深く切れ込んだ水路があり、そこに「袖の湊」の文字が記載されています。江戸時代の『石城志』などの地誌に記された2度の埋め立てや、近年の考古学的な考察によれば、中世の袖の湊の位置は博多の西側の湾入部にあったのではないかと考えられています。